Kinjhar lake is lying in Thatta District, Sind Province about 1 1 3km by road east-north-east of Karachi. Its southern end is about 19km north of the town of Thatta on the Hyderabad Road. 68Â°03’E, 24Â°56’N. Announced a creatures haven in Goal 1977 under Place 14 of the Sind Wildlife Security Law, 1972. First secured as a activity title haven in 1971, under Place 15/1 of the Western Pakistan Wildlife Security Law 1959. The haven was at first ornamented by a shield location of 1.6km distance, but this was enhanced to 5km in September 1975. Specific a Wetland of Worldwide Significance at the time of Pakistan’s
ratification of the Ramsar Meeting on 23 September 1976. Area 1 3,468ha of lake ornamented by a shield location of 5km distance. It has been suggested that the limitations of the haven should be prolonged up to the channel along the Thatta-Hyderabad street (Conder, 1977).
Fauna Mammals known to happen in the place include jackal Canis aureus, fox Vulpes vulpes, mongoose Herpestes sp. and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. Some 65 species of waterfowl have been recorded. Breeding species include night heron Nycticorax nycticorax (up to 5,000), cotton pygmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus (up to 1,290), purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyria, and pheasant- tailed jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus. Mid-winter counts in the 1970s produced totals of between 50,000 and 150,000 waterfowl. Over 135,000 birds were present in January 1987, and over 205,000 in January 1988. Maximum counts include the following: 1,580 great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, 1,640 little cormorant P. niger, 4,500 gadwall Anas strepera, 20,500 Eurasian wigeon A.penelope, 3,500 common teal A. crecca, 1,950 northern pintail A. acuta, 1,680 northem shoveler A. cly- 137 lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas peata, 23,000 common pochard Aythya ferina, 22,000 tufted duck A.fuligula, and 131,000 common coot Fulica atra. Many birds of prey have been recorded, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus being particularly common. Reptiles include cobra Naja naja. The fish fauna is rich and includes Ambassis nana, Badis sp., Puntius (Barbus) sarana, P. ticto, P. sophore, Catla catla, Channa sp., Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Gadusia chapra, Glossogobius spp.,Labeo rohita, L. gonitis, L. fimbriata, Notopterus notopterus, N. chi- tala, Rasbora rasbora, Tilapia mossambica and Xenentodon cancila. Cultural Heritage Pir Amir, an Ishmaeli shrine, is a prominent landmark on the northern shore. Local Human Population There are some 1 5 villages on the edge of the lake whose inhabitants depend to some extent on fishing for their livelihood (Conder, 1977). Visitors and Visitor Facilities A tourist complex, comprising rest houses, restaurant and theatre, is being established by the Pakistan Tourist Development Corporation at Hillaya (Conder, 1977). Scientific Research and Facilities Annual mid-winter waterfowl counts have been conducted since 1971 and the avifauna has been well documented.
The zooplankton has been studied, particularly copepods which have a significant role in the food-chain of fishes and other higher consumers (Baqai and Rehona, 1973, 1974). Conservation Value Kinjhar is an extremely important breeding, staging and wintering area for a wide variety of waterfowl. It is also an important source o ” -irinking water for Karachi and supports a major fishery. Being close to the capital, it offers excellent opportunities for nature-oriented recreation, conservation education and research. Conservation Management The sanctuary is administered according to a management plan prepared by Conder (1977).
Commensurate with the primary management objective of provid- ing Karachi with its freshwater supply, the habitat should be protected for the benefit of the large numbers of resident and migratory birds, particularly waterfowl, and facilities provided for the public to observe and learn more about the wildlife. Hunting is prohibited but not commercial fishing, rights to which are contracted out by the Karachi Development Authority. Bathing and other activities likely to pollute the lake are restricted by the Authority. Conder has recom- mended that the sanctuary be enlarged to include the three seepage lagoons between RD 10 and 38, and that management activities be concentrated on these lagoons rather than the main lake where fishing is a major disturbance. Management Constraints Fishing acitivties are a source of almost continuous disturbance to waterfowl: some of the larger villages have up to 30 boats in operation and there are 56 large circular nets set permanentiy in the lake. There is also some encroachment by grazing cattie, and an increasing amount of disturbance from recreational activities (Conder,1977).